Linux OS – Linux-Quebec.org http://www.linux-quebec.org Wed, 02 Mar 2016 16:33:32 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.7.4 openSUSE: A Great Choice For Novices And Developers Alike http://www.linux-quebec.org/opensuse-a-great-choice-for-novices-and-developers-alike/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/opensuse-a-great-choice-for-novices-and-developers-alike/#respond Wed, 26 Sep 2012 11:29:08 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=170 When most people talk about installing Linux, they are almost certainly referring to installing a Linux distribution on your computer. Linux distributions are complete operating systems based on the Linux kernel; the wide variety of free and open-source applications that they contain allow you to immediately begin being productive on your desktop. The Linux kernel is renowned for being incredibly stable, and Linux distributions in general are very secure. One of these Linux distributions is openSUSE, notable for its YaST system configuration tool that makes configuring your system easy. openSUSE is one of the more popular Linux distributions, and is the base for SUSE Linux Enterprise, which is for corporations who wish to bring Linux to their business environment and need to have extensive technical support.

History Of openSUSE

SUSE Linux logo

SUSE Linux logo

SUSE Linux was started by SUSE, a German technology company, with the goal of developing a Linux distribution to be used in corporate environments. SUSE Linux was designed to be at home on both servers and on workstations. The SUSE Linux brand was acquired by Novell in 2004. Soon after the brand was acquired, SUSE Linux was entirely open-sourced and released to the community as openSUSE. openSUSE has an open development model, and welcomes contributions and input from third-party developers. At the same time, many corporations (including AMD and SUSE) hire developers to work full-time on improving the distribution.

How Does openSUSE Differ From Other Linux Distributions?

 

Official openSUSE logo

Official openSUSE logo

openSUSE is most notable for YaST, which is a central configuration tool for the entire operating system. Instead of editing configuration files (mostly found in the /etc directory on Linux systems) by hand, YaST allows users and system administrators to easily configure every aspect of their system. Many system administrators, however, preferred editing these files by hand since they felt they had greater control over them this way. The main goal of YaST is to provide a graphic interface that makes changes to these configuration files in a way that does not interfere with editing them using a text editor; operating in this way makes it easy for novices to configure their system via the graphical interface but makes it possible for experts to understand the changes that were made.

openSUSE is also notable among Linux enthusiasts for having one of the best KDE implementations of any Linux distribution. KDE, also known as the K Desktop Environment, is an entire suite of applications along with a window manager whose stated goal is to make using your computer easy and productive. Between the excellent KDE implementation and the easy-to-use YaST system configuration tool, openSUSE is a great Linux distribution for novices who want to try out KDE.

Also notable is the openSUSE Build Service. This tool is excellent for Linux application developers; it allows developers to build packages for all major distributions, such as Ubuntu, Debian and Fedora, on the same machine. Since one of the major headaches for Linux developers is having to package your software for so many distributions, having this is a great boon for all Linux developers.

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The Benefits of LinuxCentOS http://www.linux-quebec.org/the-benefits-of-linuxcentos/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/the-benefits-of-linuxcentos/#respond Wed, 22 Feb 2012 08:45:43 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=107 Established in 2004, the Linux distro known as “LinuxCentOS is one of the longest-lasting, most popular Linux builds. LinuxCentOS is not for beginners, though. It is truly intended for server use by knowledgeable, experienced Linux experts. There are many reasons CentOS is popular among the hardcore Linux community. Chief among them are its basis in the Red Hat Linux architecture, its stability, long support schedule, history of faithful updates and widespread use.

Born from Red Hat

LinuxCentOS was developed from the source code of the popular, stable and commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux distro. This is possible due to the usually open source nature of Linux. Because of its basis in Red Hat, CentOS boasts stability, usability and reliability comparable to its pay-per-use brethren. LinuxCentOS also piggyback’s Red Hat’s familiar release schedule, so much so that Red Hat reclassified its own version numbering scheme to mirror CentOS. LinuxCentOS is a perfect free alternative to anyone who wants Red Hat stability and support without Red Hat prices.

Long Support Schedule

Unlike many distros who feature spotty updates, unreliable release schedules and that might flame out soon, LinuxCentOS features reliable releases. CentOS follows the release schedule of its base, Red Hat. Since Red Hat is known for its frequent, tested and stable releases, the CentOS version of LInux is a very safe bet.

Scheduled releases are just part of the reliable update plan for CentOS. To truly see the benefit, one need only look at CentOS’ planned lifecycle. Just like Red Hat Enterprise Linux, LinuxCentOS has a planned life cycle of ten years. This means that CentOS users can rely on updates and support until 2014.

Widespread Use

The final key benefit of LinuxCentOS is its widespread acceptance. A large number of the world’s web servers run CentOS, meaning it has a vibrant online support community. THius OS is actually named based on its community roots and support. CentOS stands for “Community ENTerprise Operating System.” What this means to anyone considering LinuxCentOS is that there’s no need to rely on commercial paid support; there is a rabid user community willing to help.

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Advantages of Gentoo Linux http://www.linux-quebec.org/advantages-of-gentoo-linux/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/advantages-of-gentoo-linux/#respond Tue, 21 Feb 2012 22:15:37 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=90 Gentoo Linux is a unique experience for those people that really enjoy tinkering with every aspect of the operating system. Since all of the software is compiled from source, only the options and applications desired need to be installed. While this greatly improves the efficiency of the distribution, it can lead to long compile times and hours of configuring before anything works. As a result, it is definitely not for the faint of heart. Due to variances in configurations and occasional stability issues as a result, Gentoo is not generally recommended as a mission-critical server.

Do you enjoy being on the bleeding edge of computing? Do you like to spend your time tinkering with every option available, from the kernel to the office suite? If so, Gentoo Linux may very well be the distribution for you. The main advantage to be had from Gentoo Linux is that every single application is compiled from the source code. This means that the executables are optimized for your exact model of processor, and it also means that you can install just the functionality needed within each application. Don’t care about having a GUI? It’s not necessary to install one in Gentoo Linux. Don’t want hyperthreading options installed in your compiler? Gentoo Linux doesn’t need that either.

There are hundreds of pages of documentation on Gentoo Linux which will really appeal to the Linux hacker inside you. Each application has all kinds of flags that can be set to ensure the experience is perfect for you. It is available for a variety of computer architectures, including x86, amd64, alpha, and sparc. While the initial installation, compilation, and configuration of everything can take a lot of time, the end result is worth it with the improved speed and ease of use.

If you have some Linux experience but were looking to improve your skills, going through a full install of Gentoo Linux will definitely give you a strong background in all things Linux. If you already have a lot of knowledge, Gentoo Linux will give you that optimized experience you have been looking for.

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Linux Software http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-software/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-software/#respond Tue, 21 Feb 2012 09:39:24 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=84 As Linux gains more popularity and acceptance, the list of available applications and Linux software keeps growing. Like the OS itself, Linux software is typically less resource-intensive than its Windows counterparts and it’s also usually free. Here are some of the most popular and useful Linux software packages across a variety of areas, including desktops, security and productivity applications.

Office Apps

The most well-known piece of Linux software for office applications is Open Office. Consider this the free Linux counterpart to Microsoft Office. In Open Office, Linux users will find all the necessary productivity apps, including word processing, spreadsheets and presentation programs. Work can be saved in a variety of formats, ensuring compatibility with Office.

Desktops

Launchy is an easy-to-use program launcher desktop app. It requires far less memory then Windows Explorer and can be used not just as a desktop, but as a media player and a web bookmark app, too.

Antivirus

Linux software users really don’t rely on antivirus as much as proponents of Windows do, but it’s still helpful to have an antivirus application, especially when trading files with Windows friends. Like a lot of Linux software, Clam is lightweight, easy to use and free.

Firewall

Firestarter is a useful all-in-one firewall app that can be as simple or as complex as needed. It is set up with a simple wizard but it also allows Linux software users to open and close specific ports at will, view traffic in real time, configure whitelist and blacklist rules and much more.

Web Browsing

Everyone will mention Firefox, and with good reason. Since that’s the case, we’ll go with Opera here, instead. Opera is free and extremely useful. It comes with a very effective RSS reader, clients for email and newsgroups and even an IRC client. Combine all that with cutting edge features like tab stacking and Firefox definitely has some competition in the “non-IE” sector.

Games

Owning a computer isn’t just about productivity, security and browsing. There’s a wide variety of games for fans of Linux software to try, including BillardGL for fans of pool, Gnome Hearts and even First person shooter Urban Terror. When it’s time to put down the spreadsheets and have fun, Linux software offers a lot of options.

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Fedora Linux http://www.linux-quebec.org/fedora-linux/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/fedora-linux/#respond Tue, 21 Feb 2012 06:20:07 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=71 Fedora Linux is the third most popular Linux distribution available today, only following Mint and Ubuntu at first and second, respectively. Fedora Linux is a community-supported distro funded by the Red Hat company. It is a free operating system, in the sense coined by GNU, though its derivative project, Red Hat linux, is not. The Fedora Project is governed by a community-elected board.

Fedora Linux comes with popular open source desktop softFedora Linux is the third most popular Linux distribution available today, only following Mint and Ubuntu at first and second, respectively. Fedora Linux is a community-supported distro funded by the Red Hat company. It is a free operating system, in the sense coined by GNU, though its derivative project, Red Hat linux, is not. The Fedora Project is governed by a community-elected board.

Fedora Linux comes with popular open source desktop software out of the box, including the LibreOffice suite, Firefox, Empathy, and GIMP. Gnome 3.2.1 is the desktop management tool provided with version 16, the current version at the time of this writing. There are enough tools to satisfy most office and desktop needs. Package management is handled through the yum, although apt-rpm is available as an alternative to those who are more comfortable with Debian tools. Additional repositories can be added to access packages that aren’t officially supported for Fedora.

Fedora has a fairly short life cycle. New versions of Fedora are released approximately every 6 months, and are supported and updated for 13 months following their release. This can be nice for desktop users who would like to keep on the cutting edge of free software, but may not be suitable for developers who require long term support for an operating system, e.g. in embedded systems.

Fedora is the progenitor of many other Linux distributions, the most well-known of which is Red Hat Linux, a corporate project developed for enterprise users. Other derivatives include Fusion Linux, a desktop-oriented distribution, and Moblin, which is developed specifically with netbook and mobile devices in mind.

Fedora Linux is a flexible, all-purpose distribution. It can be adapted to suit the home, the office, or the server rack. As one of the most influential distributions of all time, it can probably be adapted to meet any other specialized need as well.ware out of the box, including the LibreOffice suite, Firefox, Empathy, and GIMP. Gnome 3.2.1 is the desktop management tool provided with version 16, the current version at the time of this writing. There are enough tools to satisfy most office and desktop needs. Package management is handled through the yum, although apt-rpm is available as an alternative to those who are more comfortable with Debian tools. Additional repositories can be added to access packages that aren’t officially supported for Fedora.

Fedora has a fairly short life cycle. New versions of Fedora are released approximately every 6 months, and are supported and updated for 13 months following their release. This can be nice for desktop users who would like to keep on the cutting edge of free software, but may not be suitable for developers who require long term support for an operating system, e.g. in embedded systems.

Fedora is the progenitor of many other Linux distributions, the most well-known of which is Red Hat Linux, a corporate project developed for enterprise users. Other derivatives include Fusion Linux, a desktop-oriented distribution, and Moblin, which is developed specifically with netbook and mobile devices in mind.

Fedora Linux is a flexible, all-purpose distribution. It can be adapted to suit the home, the office, or the server rack. As one of the most influential distributions of all time, it can probably be adapted to meet any other specialized need as well.

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Debian Linux http://www.linux-quebec.org/debian-linux/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/debian-linux/#respond Mon, 20 Feb 2012 15:13:11 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=67 Now in its sixth major release, Debian Linux is one of the most popular distributions today. It owes much of this success to its social contract, allowing unparalleled support and availability of its code base to build fork distros.

How did Debian Linux get its start?

Debian Linux was first announced by Ian Murdock in 1994 after frustration with the bugginess and closed nature of Linux’s first distribution, Softlanding Linux System. The Debian Manifesto laid down Murdock’s vision of a complete operating system mirroring the ideals of the Free Software Foundation. He was able to gather support from the GNU project, leading Debian Linux 1.0 in 1996. Debian was one of the first modern Linux distributions, joining Red Hat and Softlanding-based Slackware.

Murdock left the project that year, and his replacement, Bruce Perens, sought to maintain the distribution’s openness by working with the developers on writing the Debian Social Contract. This was in stark contrast to other distros of the time, none of whom guaranteed that development would remain open.

What makes Debian Linux different from other distros?

Debian Linux calls itself “the universal operating system.” Over 29,000 software packages are supported, while native versions are available for ten computing platforms. Along with Linux, there’s also support for FreeBSD, OpenBSD and the GNU HURD kernel system. Gnome is the default desktop environment, but popular alternatives like KDE and XFCE are available during installation, with packages available for niche desktops including LXDE and Ratpoison.

The APT package management system was created by Debian to install and maintain the distro’s software. Unlike RPM, it allows for tandem installations of interdependent software packages, eliminating “dependency hell.” Today, APT the most popular system used in Linux distros.

Debian Linux also tries to stay away from closed software: The latest release manages to eliminate non-free firmware completely from the kernel, letting users choose what they want on their system.

What is a “Debian based” distro?

This openness has resulted in several “child distro” fork distributions ranging from desktop leader Ubuntu, CD-based KNOPPIX, and ultralight DSL-Linux. While these new distributions can freely borrow from Debian’s code base, but are expected to return the favor by contributing their work to the main Debian distribution.

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Evaluating Linux Server http://www.linux-quebec.org/evaluating-linux-server/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/evaluating-linux-server/#respond Sun, 19 Feb 2012 20:21:11 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=59 As Linux gains acceptance as a desktop operating system, IT professionals in growing numbers are evaluating Linux server applications. How does Linux measure up to Windows server platforms? Is Linux server ready for the data center? Here are seven key areas of comparison between the two that should help the evaluation process.

Performance: Linux server platforms are far less resource-intensive than their Windows counterparts. With the operating system making fewer demands on processor and memory, servers running on Linux typically show a higher level of performance for the crucial apps they host.

Cost: Linux is essentially a free operating system. Even Red Hat, the primary commercial Linux server distro, is comparatively inexpensive. This is especially true when contrasted to Windows server platforms, with expensive per-server and per-seat licensing and costly software assurance packages.

Security: Both Windows and Linux server have their security drawbacks. Most hacks and exploits are written to target Windows servers. On the other hand, Windows server platforms have better user access control right out of the box, while Linux platforms require a separate application to gain a finer level of control over permissions.

Uptime: Everyone who has ever used Windows at home or in the server room has disaster stories. Services hang, apps crash and then there’s the infamous “blue screen of death.” Microsoft has improved Windows’ uptime, but it can’t compare to the lightweight stability offered by Linux server.

Updates: Depending on the choice of Linux server distro, Linux updates may be right on schedule and dependable or they could be spotty and untested. Since Microsoft is the only source of Windows updates, their monthly server OS updates are typically more timely and reliable on the whole.

Skill: Linux server skills are far more specialized, especially with the ability to alter the system kernel inherent in Linux but unavailable in Windows. It may be tougher to find Linux server admins or at least more expensive.

Vmware: Virtualization in the data center is a booming industry and Linux is a big part of it. Linux is so integral to Vmware that a flavor of Linux is packaged with the Vmware server installer. There is simply no reason at all to use Windows server to host a Vmware environment.

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Linux Saved my Laptop! http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-saved-my-laptop/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-saved-my-laptop/#respond Sun, 19 Feb 2012 10:55:41 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=55 I learned about the safety and usability of Linux after disaster struck my PC. Without Linux, I probably would’ve had to reinstall my OS or replace my computer.

My experimentation with several Linux Distributions began in a local coffee shop. I visited a site that unexpectedly started to do a fake virus scan on my laptop. Even though I closed my browser and turned off my computer, it got infected. I couldn’t launch my anti-virus program or get online. It was the second time in a month that I’d gotten a Trojan. I was using the most popular operating system, which will be unnamed, but I’m sure everyone knows which one I mean.

Before the Trojan struck, I’d visited a site that had a program to put Linux Distributions onto a flash drive. I installed one of the most user-friendly Linux Distributions on a spare flash drive, tossed it into my computer bag, and forgot about it. Desperate to fix my laptop, I put the flash drive in a usb port and booted into Linux. I was able to get online to learn how to remove the Trojan. I also learned that Linux was easy to use, and that the Trojan that infected my computer twice wouldn’t have been able to do so if I’d been using one of the many Linux Distributions instead of the popular operating system.

Ever since, I’ve been using flash drives with various Linux Distributions whenever I’m online. I’ve also started using some of the free programs, such as OpenOffice or LibreOffice, included with many Linux Distributions. I even installed OpenOffice on my mother’s new computer with the popular operating system, but no productivity programs. She’s had no problems using OpenOffice; she’s happy she didn’t have to spend additional money to have a full-featured word processor. I like several of the Linux Distributions so much that if I wasn’t required to have the popular operating system for some of my work, I would use Linux exclusively.

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What is Linux Ubuntu? http://www.linux-quebec.org/what-is-linux-ubuntu/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/what-is-linux-ubuntu/#respond Sat, 18 Feb 2012 18:14:32 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=51 Linux Ubuntu is a computer operating system interface. It has a graphical user interface that allows the user to run the computer easily. The Linux Ubuntu GUI is easy to use and understand. Ubuntu sounds rather exotic, almost African in origin. Some of the things a user might want to know are:

  • What is Linux Ubuntu and how much does it cost?
  • Will Linux Ubuntu work on my computer?
  • Are there many programs available for it?
  • Will Ubuntu work with my hardware, such as printers and scanners?

The Linux Ubuntu operating system is based on the Linux kernel or code. The name actually comes from a word in the African Swahili language meaning community. The name was chosen because Linux Ubuntu is an open source software program. This means that a community of programmers collaborates on the system instead of one company. The open source license allows the program to be offered free to anyone who wants to use it. Therefore, Ubuntu won’t cost anything to use, either for personal or business use.

Ubuntu will run on most Windows-based PCs. However, if you want to try it before making any changes, the OS is available as a download that can be burned as a bootable CD or DVD. You can boot to the disk and run the program from there, checking for compatibility. Additionally, you can install the operating system so that it will run in conjunction with Windows in a dual boot environment. Linux Ubuntu has been used on computers running Windows 98 through Windows 7.

There are well over 30,000 programs that run on Linux Ubuntu, including office productivity suites, graphics programs and music players and recorders. Most of the programs available are free. OpenOffice and LibreOffice are two of the office suites available. Google has a version of its Chrome browser designed for Ubuntu as well.

Linux Ubuntu supports most, if not all of the peripheral hardware that a computer uses. Most printers and scanners will merely need to be plugged in to the computer. In most cases the computer will not need to be rebooted to use the hardware. Some hardware manufacturers provide programs designed specifically for Ubuntu.

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Working with Linux http://www.linux-quebec.org/working-with-linux/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/working-with-linux/#respond Fri, 17 Feb 2012 15:10:20 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=46 Started by university student Linus Torvalds when he wanted to have a UNIX-like operating system he could run on his PC, Linux has grown into a major platform used for everything from home computers to:

What is Linux, exactly?

Linux is a software kernel, providing the basic support for communication between software and hardware. This kernel is open source, letting anyone look at and modify the source code provided that they share their work. When someone says they “run Linux,” they mean they use a complete OS called a “distribution” or “distro” that’s based on this kernel.

What can Linux do, and why do people use it?

Open source software lets people borrow from existing programming instead of reinventing the wheel, making it a good place to start when building a new software platform. In fact, you’ve probably used a Linux-based system many times without realizing it: Android uses the kernel, cash registers and ATM machines run stripped down “embedded” distributions, and LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) servers make up a large part of the Internet: In fact, there’s a good chance the page you are reading right now was sent from a Linux server.

The openness of the code also allows bugs to be identified and fixed quickly, which has lead government agencies ranging from NASA to the U.S. Department of Defense to adopt this software.

For home users, it’s all about flexibility. There are hundreds of distros tailor made for almost every purpose, from being extremely easy for new computer users to making old hardware compatible with new software standards. Whatever your needs, there’s probably a distro out there that will do what you need.

Most distros will come with enough free software to make a computer usable as soon as the OS is installed. Other software can be added using a built-in package manager, which also allows users to update their entire system by running a single program. Open source hardware support also means most new hardware works without having to install additional software.

Are there disadvantages to using Linux?

Many former problems have been eliminated in recent years: Printer support is nearly universal, while niggling annoyances like sound server compatibility have mostly been solved. Compatible equivalents exist for most major commercial software, although gaming development is lacking, and there’s no way to directly purchase from iTunes.

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