Linux – Linux-Quebec.org http://www.linux-quebec.org Wed, 02 Mar 2016 16:33:32 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.7.4 Linux Backup Solutions http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-backup-solutions/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-backup-solutions/#respond Mon, 27 Feb 2012 09:18:03 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=136 Thanks to its ubiquity on servers, there are a couple excellent physical Linux backup solutions on the market. Cloud computing has also gotten a fair amount of attention recently, bringing with it several Linux backup solutions.

rsync and luckyBackup: Ultimate Backup Flexibility

This terminal-based program is the gold standard of Linux backup solutions, allowing users to clone files and directories between different devices in just about every way imaginable. Most servers in use today are backed up using shell scripts to control this program. luckyBackup is a frontend that makes rsync’s functionality more accessible, while adding features like email notifications.

DejaDup: The Easiest of the Physical Linux Backup Solutions

On the opposite end of the spectrum is Gnome-based DejaDup. This program uses wizards to guide users through the backup process to make it as painless as possible. Once set up, the window has just two buttons: “backup” and “restore.”

Dropbox: The Leader in Cloud-based Linux Backup Solutions

One of the first cloud-based Linux backup services, this service has a simple file manager-based interface, letting users specify which folders should automatically be backed up on their servers. Packages for the installer are available for Debian, Ubuntu and Fedora, while the source code is also available to compile for other distros. 2GB of storage is free, and more can be added for a fee.

Ubuntu One: Easy to Use, Hard to Install

Functionally, Canonical’s own Linux Backup Solution is nearly identical to Dropbox, and is already installed in most forks of Ubuntu. It integrates seamlessly with Nautilus, letting users sync folders with the service with a couple clicks. It can also work in tandem with Ubuntu’s music store, letting users keep their audio files on hand anywhere.

Unfortunately, clients aren’t readily available: Outside Ubuntu, there are clients for Windows, Android, and iDevices. The underlying client software is open source, permitting other distributions to port it to their own platforms, but for now no one else provides official support.

SpiderOak: The Most Secure of the Linux Backup Solutions

Another Dropbox-like service, it doesn’t have an open source client, but unlike the other Linux backup solutions, it has native support for Slackware and OpenSUSE. Data going to and from the service is encrypted, making it unviewable even to SpiderOak’s own employees.

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Linux Firewalls http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-firewalls/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-firewalls/#respond Thu, 23 Feb 2012 21:57:39 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=129 Linux is a widely-available, flexible and popular open source operating system with as many uses as its proponents can think of. With this in mind, it’s no wonder there are so many Linux distributions (“distros”) aimed at creating a Linux firewall. Some of the more popular Linux firewall specific distros include ClearOS, Gibraltar and LEAF Project. These and other Linux firewall distros are great alternatives to both Windows based firewalls and dedicated firewall appliances.

Linux Firewall versus Windows Firewall

Resource usage: just like in server and desktop editions, a Linux firewall can get by with far less in system resources than its Windows based brethren. Since there is no bloated OS to run, a Linux firewall will do more with less.

Stability and Uptime: again, this is very similar to the pros and cons of using desktop and server Linux. Because Windows machines have a resource-intensive operating system on top of their intended functions, a Windows firewall will be more prone to crashes and downtime than a Linux firewall.

Cost: More hardware is required to build a Windows based firewall. Add to that the cost of OS licensing and fees for dedicated software like Microsoft Forefront and a Windows firewall becomes an expensive proposition. In the meantime, most Linux firewall distros are free. On top of that, a Linux box can be built at a far hardware lower cost.

Linux Firewall versus Dedicated Hardware

Device Flexibility: Dedicated firewall hardware providers are careful to lock down their products to the core features they’re selling. There is usually no other interesting functionality built in to a hardware firewall. Unless you pay extra, that is. Since firewall on Linux is open source, its functionality is always being expanded. Want to alter your firewall for greater intrusion detection or traffic shaping? You can do that with Linux.

Security: Buying a hardware firewall model means buying the same fireall that thousands of other companies may have. This means any exploits discovered on that model suddenly become everyone’s problem. Using a Linux based firewall means you can customize every option, including security, for a unique and hard to hack firewall.

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Linux Wiki http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-wiki-howto/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-wiki-howto/#respond Wed, 22 Feb 2012 10:30:18 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=94 Linux Wiki is a community website for users of Linux and others who are interested in Linux. Linux Wiki is found at http://linux.wikia.com/wiki/Linux_Wiki. Run on the Wikia platform, Linux Wiki allows for free editing of site content by any visitor. If is even possible to add extraneous content simply by clicking on the Edit link encased in a blue button with pencil icon at the top of the page. The button opens the Wikia editor, where changes can be freely made. Certain content cannot be modified on the page, but can still be deleted.

Linux Wiki has fundamental content, designed and implemented by interested editors or perhaps a founder. Centered on the home page is a large table showing Popular Linux Software and Top Ten Distros (Linux distributions). Anyone visiting the site and seeking to add Linux to a computer can click on one of the Distro links, and proceed to download a version of Linux. These include Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Fedora, Debian, PCLinuxOS, and others. Launching upon Linux use for the first time on a desktop is a thrilling process, even if one wishes later to delete the operating system and revert purely to Windows.

As for Linux software, Linux Wiki lists almost forty different software releases for Linux. These include the graphical user interfaces or desktop environments of Gnome, KDE, and others. They are found at the heart of Linux desktop releases. There are also Linux programs for media editing and playback and artistic design. These might be less frequently used by everyday computer users than would the Internet releases of Firefox, Chromium (Chrome), and Opera, along with the Office releases of Open Office, and the communications releases of Pidgin and Skype. The great thing about this software, and all Linux software, is that it is free!

Linux Wiki is a fun place to visit for anyone who has ever used Linux, and even those who haven’t, but who still might some day. Linux and Linux software are all free, and all readily available for quick download from an abundance of websites. Easy to install and use, too, just as the Linux Wiki shows. All in all, Linux Wiki is a great and useful resource.

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Understanding and Working With the Linux Kernel http://www.linux-quebec.org/understanding-and-working-with-the-linux-kernel/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/understanding-and-working-with-the-linux-kernel/#respond Wed, 22 Feb 2012 09:40:51 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=112 The Linux kernel‘s open source nature lets everyday users modify it to their needs. Some users may need to add in driver support for a new piece of hardware, while others may want to strip out extraneous options.

How does the Linux kernel work?

Linux is a monolithic kernel, encompassing hardware drivers, file systems, system calls, and inter-process communications. Hardware and file systems essentially have super user access to the system. This can be modified by turning on and off internal options, as well as loading kernel modules which add additional driver support.

The Linux kernel file name begins with “vmlinuz,” showing it was compressed with Zlib and supports virtual memory. At the end of the file name will be a string of numbers showing the version and patches. For example, “3.0.0-12-generic” is Linux 3.0.0 version 12 with no patches. There will also be a file starting with “config” that lists which options should be enabled when the Linux kernel is compiled. Kernel module files end in “.ko,” and are typically stored in the /lib/modules directory.

Why would someone want to modify their system’s Linux kernel?

With Linux’s massive driver and platform support, there are bound to be several things enabled in the kernel by default that aren’t necessary for a particular system. Many distributions disable non-free drives by default, while brand new devices may not have had drivers added to the kernel yet. These can be enabled by patching.

How can the Linux kernel be patched?

Each distro will have its own idiosyncrasies when it comes to compiling a new kernel, but there are a few basic steps shared by all distributions:

  • Download the Linux kernel source code
  • Use a utility to tweak the settings of the config file. Nconfig and menuconfig are the most common, and are usually included with the kernel source code package.
  • Compile the kernel
  • Change the boot loader settings to use the newly-patched Linux kernel

If driver support is built into the kernel, how can video and printer drivers be enabled and disabled without recompiling?

Linux is based around the terminal, which only requires text output. Graphics are handled by an X Windows system, usually X.org or XFree86. When changing driver settings, it’s altering the configuration of X, not the kernel. Likewise, printer support is handled externally by CUPS.

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The Benefits of LinuxCentOS http://www.linux-quebec.org/the-benefits-of-linuxcentos/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/the-benefits-of-linuxcentos/#respond Wed, 22 Feb 2012 08:45:43 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=107 Established in 2004, the Linux distro known as “LinuxCentOS is one of the longest-lasting, most popular Linux builds. LinuxCentOS is not for beginners, though. It is truly intended for server use by knowledgeable, experienced Linux experts. There are many reasons CentOS is popular among the hardcore Linux community. Chief among them are its basis in the Red Hat Linux architecture, its stability, long support schedule, history of faithful updates and widespread use.

Born from Red Hat

LinuxCentOS was developed from the source code of the popular, stable and commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux distro. This is possible due to the usually open source nature of Linux. Because of its basis in Red Hat, CentOS boasts stability, usability and reliability comparable to its pay-per-use brethren. LinuxCentOS also piggyback’s Red Hat’s familiar release schedule, so much so that Red Hat reclassified its own version numbering scheme to mirror CentOS. LinuxCentOS is a perfect free alternative to anyone who wants Red Hat stability and support without Red Hat prices.

Long Support Schedule

Unlike many distros who feature spotty updates, unreliable release schedules and that might flame out soon, LinuxCentOS features reliable releases. CentOS follows the release schedule of its base, Red Hat. Since Red Hat is known for its frequent, tested and stable releases, the CentOS version of LInux is a very safe bet.

Scheduled releases are just part of the reliable update plan for CentOS. To truly see the benefit, one need only look at CentOS’ planned lifecycle. Just like Red Hat Enterprise Linux, LinuxCentOS has a planned life cycle of ten years. This means that CentOS users can rely on updates and support until 2014.

Widespread Use

The final key benefit of LinuxCentOS is its widespread acceptance. A large number of the world’s web servers run CentOS, meaning it has a vibrant online support community. THius OS is actually named based on its community roots and support. CentOS stands for “Community ENTerprise Operating System.” What this means to anyone considering LinuxCentOS is that there’s no need to rely on commercial paid support; there is a rabid user community willing to help.

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XAMPP Linux is free server technology http://www.linux-quebec.org/xampp-linux-is-free-server-technology/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/xampp-linux-is-free-server-technology/#respond Wed, 22 Feb 2012 08:09:55 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=103 XAMPP Linux is a common solution to the problem of setting up a server for a website. Maintained by the “Apache Friends”, a non-profit group dedicated to promoting the Apache server technology and making installations as user-friendly as possible, it consists of a number of programs that, in true free software fashion, come together to make a coherent solution. The “XAMPP” in XAMPP Linux is an acronym, made up of the first letters of these programs.

The A in the XAMPP Linux package stands for the Apache server itself. The Apache server is a free, open-source web server that was key in the growth of the World Wide Web and still consistently tops the charts at NetCraft, a site that records what software is employed in web servers. The M in the package denotes MySQL, a language that’s used to define, construct, and search within databases. The two Ps stand for two useful web languages, PHP and Perl. Both are used in scripting to make dynamic web pages, though that’s not the only extent of their capability – Perl in particular has been noted to be extremely powerful and flexible, and it has found use in the script-happy world of Linux distributions.

So far, XAMPP Linux has given us a server and three languages to complement it, but what does the X stand for? The X is pronounced “cross”, as in “cross-platform”. That’s right, the phrase “XAMPP Linux” turns out to be a bit misleading, or at least redundant! XAMPP Linux brings to mind an older acronym, LAMP, which stood for “Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP”, a previous software combination used to make a functional web server. Now, the Apache Server, MySQL, PHP and Perl aren’t simply limited to the Linux platform, and this bundle of software can be employed on Windows and Mac OS X – however, the especial emphasis in XAMPP Linux describes a united free software solution, free as in beer, free as in liberty, open for all, offering a powerful, no-cost, and – thanks to the Apache friends – easy solution to building your own web site.

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Advantages of using a Linux FTP server/client http://www.linux-quebec.org/advantages-of-using-a-linux-ftp-server-client/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/advantages-of-using-a-linux-ftp-server-client/#respond Wed, 22 Feb 2012 07:38:49 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=98 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a common way to move files from one computer to another over the internet. Linux FTP is the most secure method, surpassing other operating system’s FTP options. The ease of use found with a Linux FTP is also noteworthy, requiring little training time.

Using FTP to transfer files requires an FTP server software to be running on the host computer in order to send and receive files as requested. Also you will need client software installed and running on your local machine for you to be able to send and receive from the Linux FTP server.

There are several options for software to utilize when using a Linux FTP as a client. Filezilla, GFTP, and Kasablanca are all good FTP clients for sending and receiving files. Using the command line to transfer files is also possible when utilizing Linux for your FTP client but no as easy as those programs just mentioned. Simply download and install the package, enter the FTP server information (IP, port, username, and password) then connect to see a list of the files and directories present on the server available for download. It’s that easy!

Setting up a Linux FTP server is slightly more complicated. You’ll need to download the package vsftpd from one of the Linux software repositories via the terminal command “sudo apt-get install vsftpd”. It will ask you for your password, which you must enter, and afterward some editing of the configuration file is necessary to get the Linux FTP server set up. You can find more about this in the documentation for the vsftpd software.

The security of a Linux FTP is leaps and bounds ahead of the other major operating systems. This is because of regular security updates to the FTP software and Linux operating system by the developers. These constant updates make Linux FTP the most secure platform for FTP in the world. Most servers you encounter online are using a form of Linux for their FTP needs. For many, security is a top priority when storing important data online. Which is why Linux FTP is the first choice for FTP software on the internet.

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Advantages of Gentoo Linux http://www.linux-quebec.org/advantages-of-gentoo-linux/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/advantages-of-gentoo-linux/#respond Tue, 21 Feb 2012 22:15:37 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=90 Gentoo Linux is a unique experience for those people that really enjoy tinkering with every aspect of the operating system. Since all of the software is compiled from source, only the options and applications desired need to be installed. While this greatly improves the efficiency of the distribution, it can lead to long compile times and hours of configuring before anything works. As a result, it is definitely not for the faint of heart. Due to variances in configurations and occasional stability issues as a result, Gentoo is not generally recommended as a mission-critical server.

Do you enjoy being on the bleeding edge of computing? Do you like to spend your time tinkering with every option available, from the kernel to the office suite? If so, Gentoo Linux may very well be the distribution for you. The main advantage to be had from Gentoo Linux is that every single application is compiled from the source code. This means that the executables are optimized for your exact model of processor, and it also means that you can install just the functionality needed within each application. Don’t care about having a GUI? It’s not necessary to install one in Gentoo Linux. Don’t want hyperthreading options installed in your compiler? Gentoo Linux doesn’t need that either.

There are hundreds of pages of documentation on Gentoo Linux which will really appeal to the Linux hacker inside you. Each application has all kinds of flags that can be set to ensure the experience is perfect for you. It is available for a variety of computer architectures, including x86, amd64, alpha, and sparc. While the initial installation, compilation, and configuration of everything can take a lot of time, the end result is worth it with the improved speed and ease of use.

If you have some Linux experience but were looking to improve your skills, going through a full install of Gentoo Linux will definitely give you a strong background in all things Linux. If you already have a lot of knowledge, Gentoo Linux will give you that optimized experience you have been looking for.

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Linux Software http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-software/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/linux-software/#respond Tue, 21 Feb 2012 09:39:24 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=84 As Linux gains more popularity and acceptance, the list of available applications and Linux software keeps growing. Like the OS itself, Linux software is typically less resource-intensive than its Windows counterparts and it’s also usually free. Here are some of the most popular and useful Linux software packages across a variety of areas, including desktops, security and productivity applications.

Office Apps

The most well-known piece of Linux software for office applications is Open Office. Consider this the free Linux counterpart to Microsoft Office. In Open Office, Linux users will find all the necessary productivity apps, including word processing, spreadsheets and presentation programs. Work can be saved in a variety of formats, ensuring compatibility with Office.

Desktops

Launchy is an easy-to-use program launcher desktop app. It requires far less memory then Windows Explorer and can be used not just as a desktop, but as a media player and a web bookmark app, too.

Antivirus

Linux software users really don’t rely on antivirus as much as proponents of Windows do, but it’s still helpful to have an antivirus application, especially when trading files with Windows friends. Like a lot of Linux software, Clam is lightweight, easy to use and free.

Firewall

Firestarter is a useful all-in-one firewall app that can be as simple or as complex as needed. It is set up with a simple wizard but it also allows Linux software users to open and close specific ports at will, view traffic in real time, configure whitelist and blacklist rules and much more.

Web Browsing

Everyone will mention Firefox, and with good reason. Since that’s the case, we’ll go with Opera here, instead. Opera is free and extremely useful. It comes with a very effective RSS reader, clients for email and newsgroups and even an IRC client. Combine all that with cutting edge features like tab stacking and Firefox definitely has some competition in the “non-IE” sector.

Games

Owning a computer isn’t just about productivity, security and browsing. There’s a wide variety of games for fans of Linux software to try, including BillardGL for fans of pool, Gnome Hearts and even First person shooter Urban Terror. When it’s time to put down the spreadsheets and have fun, Linux software offers a lot of options.

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Fedora Linux http://www.linux-quebec.org/fedora-linux/ http://www.linux-quebec.org/fedora-linux/#respond Tue, 21 Feb 2012 06:20:07 +0000 http://oneclick.i.biz/instances/www.linux-quebec.org/?p=71 Fedora Linux is the third most popular Linux distribution available today, only following Mint and Ubuntu at first and second, respectively. Fedora Linux is a community-supported distro funded by the Red Hat company. It is a free operating system, in the sense coined by GNU, though its derivative project, Red Hat linux, is not. The Fedora Project is governed by a community-elected board.

Fedora Linux comes with popular open source desktop softFedora Linux is the third most popular Linux distribution available today, only following Mint and Ubuntu at first and second, respectively. Fedora Linux is a community-supported distro funded by the Red Hat company. It is a free operating system, in the sense coined by GNU, though its derivative project, Red Hat linux, is not. The Fedora Project is governed by a community-elected board.

Fedora Linux comes with popular open source desktop software out of the box, including the LibreOffice suite, Firefox, Empathy, and GIMP. Gnome 3.2.1 is the desktop management tool provided with version 16, the current version at the time of this writing. There are enough tools to satisfy most office and desktop needs. Package management is handled through the yum, although apt-rpm is available as an alternative to those who are more comfortable with Debian tools. Additional repositories can be added to access packages that aren’t officially supported for Fedora.

Fedora has a fairly short life cycle. New versions of Fedora are released approximately every 6 months, and are supported and updated for 13 months following their release. This can be nice for desktop users who would like to keep on the cutting edge of free software, but may not be suitable for developers who require long term support for an operating system, e.g. in embedded systems.

Fedora is the progenitor of many other Linux distributions, the most well-known of which is Red Hat Linux, a corporate project developed for enterprise users. Other derivatives include Fusion Linux, a desktop-oriented distribution, and Moblin, which is developed specifically with netbook and mobile devices in mind.

Fedora Linux is a flexible, all-purpose distribution. It can be adapted to suit the home, the office, or the server rack. As one of the most influential distributions of all time, it can probably be adapted to meet any other specialized need as well.ware out of the box, including the LibreOffice suite, Firefox, Empathy, and GIMP. Gnome 3.2.1 is the desktop management tool provided with version 16, the current version at the time of this writing. There are enough tools to satisfy most office and desktop needs. Package management is handled through the yum, although apt-rpm is available as an alternative to those who are more comfortable with Debian tools. Additional repositories can be added to access packages that aren’t officially supported for Fedora.

Fedora has a fairly short life cycle. New versions of Fedora are released approximately every 6 months, and are supported and updated for 13 months following their release. This can be nice for desktop users who would like to keep on the cutting edge of free software, but may not be suitable for developers who require long term support for an operating system, e.g. in embedded systems.

Fedora is the progenitor of many other Linux distributions, the most well-known of which is Red Hat Linux, a corporate project developed for enterprise users. Other derivatives include Fusion Linux, a desktop-oriented distribution, and Moblin, which is developed specifically with netbook and mobile devices in mind.

Fedora Linux is a flexible, all-purpose distribution. It can be adapted to suit the home, the office, or the server rack. As one of the most influential distributions of all time, it can probably be adapted to meet any other specialized need as well.

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